The peace agreement between the State of Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan, which dealt with issues beyond land and water conflict, was an example of the effective use of the link. On the other hand, the Rio Protocol of 1942 to put an end to the border dispute between Peru and Ecuador was unrelated, but dealt only with the narrow issue of the border and failed shortly thereafter. The development of co-and-interdependent relations between countries beyond the Nile will create value, build trust and ensure compliance.  The countries bordering the Nile are Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan (Republic), Tanzania and Uganda. Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan are downstream border countries. However, South Sudan has stated that it does not recognize the 1959 bilateral agreement between Egypt and Sudan. In 1959, Egypt and an independent Sudan signed a bilateral agreement that effectively strengthened the provisions of the 1929 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty. The 1959 agreement increased water allocations for both Egypt and Sudan – Egypt`s water allocation increased from 48 billion cubic meters to 55.5 billion cubic meters and Sudan`s from 4 billion cubic meters to 18.5 billion cubic meters, bringing 10 billion cubic meters to infiltration and evaporation. Finally, the agreement provided that if the average water yield increased, the increase in yields would be evenly distributed between the two downstream riparian countries (for example). Egypt and Sudan).
The 1959 agreement, like the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1929, does not take into account the water needs of other riparian countries, including Ethiopia, whose highlands provide more than 80 per cent of the water flowing into the Nile. The fight against poverty, which is a major concern for all countries in the Nile basin, could form the basis of cooperation among all Nile residents. Given the importance of agriculture for poor economic growth, Egypt, which has considerable experience and expertise in irrigation agriculture, can share some of this expertise with other countries in exchange for increased trade. Another important area of cooperation is research, particularly in areas such as climate change, counter-terrorism and extremism and human rights. Egypt feared major disruptions in access to the Nile waters, which originally even prevented the start of GERD work. Egypt has described the dam`s filling as an existential threat, fearing that the dam could have a negative impact on the country`s water supply. However, at this stage, the GERD is almost complete and Egypt has therefore shifted its position towards the attempt to reach political agreement on the timing of the GERD reservoir and how GERD is managed, particularly during periods of drought. A recurring question is: Will Ethiopia be ready to release enough water from the reservoir to mitigate the downstream drought? The representative of Niger said that his country, as a landlocked state and country of origin of Africa`s third longest river, Niger, believes that cross-border water management is essential to the peaceful coexistence of countries that share an important natural resource.
States have established the Niger Basin Authority, the Lake Chad Basin Commission and the Mano River Union, because water must be a source of cooperation and shared prosperity, not a source of conflict or discord between the countries along the river. While the escalation of tensions around the Ethiopian Great Renaissance dam is worrying, the project is expected to have a positive result as it includes three brotherly countries united by history and geography.