The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  In 2005, the parties to the Kyoto Protocol set up a process to negotiate the future of the Kyoto Protocol (ad hoc working group on the additional commitments made by the parties to Schedule I under the Kyoto Protocol( Since 2007, this process has been under way in parallel with the negotiation process for the review of long-term cooperation measures under the Convention , the ad hoc working group on long-term cooperation (AWG-LCA), and the two sides have since been closely linked. The Copenhagen agreement reached at COP-15 is very different from the Kyoto Protocol, as it departed from legally binding mitigation targets for industrialized countries, which were coupled only with a legally binding compliance mechanism towards a bottom-up approach based on voluntary targets and a facilitation mechanism to support compliance. It has thus created uncertainty about the long-term viability of the so-called Kyoto approach, which has not been effectively dissipated by the agreement reached at COP 17 (Durban) on a second commitment period from 2013 to 2020 and, even after the COP`s decision to adopt the Paris Agreement, which calls on all parties who have not yet done so to ratify and implement the Doha amendment to the Protocol Kyoto. These doubts are also justified by the fact that the « Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol » is far from being sufficiently ratified to enter into force. The aim of the agreement is to reduce the article 2 global warming and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC through adaptation issues that were further highlighted in the development of the Paris Agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  The authors of the agreement have built a time line for the withdrawal that President Trump must follow – which prevents him from irreparably harming our climate.
It is clear that the Paris climate agreement, unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which leads a smaller portion of the emitters to reduce their emissions, can lead most emitters to reduce their emissions. However, in these efforts to reduce emissions, the Paris Agreement calls on industrialized countries to take the lead. InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels.