HORIZONTAUX ACCORDS – Horizontal agreements are agreements between companies of the same level of production. Section 3, paragraph 3 of the Act provides that these agreements include agreements that involve identical or similar exchanges of goods or services that, under Section 1, characterize the companies included in this section. These include agreements between: under British law, two laws coexist at the same time. Where an agreement reached by a British company deals exclusively with trade in the United Kingdom, Chapter 1 of the Competition Act 1998 (as amended by the Enterprise Act 2002) is subject to this provision. The agreement of a British company involving other EU member states beyond the UNITED Kingdom is governed by Article 81 of the EC Treaty. Horizontal agreements are agreements between companies at the same level of the production chain, which is usually between two competitors, either to consolidate prices, to limit production, or to divide markets. In all these agreements, there is a presumption in the law that such agreements are the origin of AAEC. The cartel is also a horizontal agreement. This is usually done between producers of goods or service providers for pricing or market distribution and is generally considered the most damaging form of anti-competitive agreements. Vertical agreements include agreements between two companies at different stages of the production agreement. B for example between the manufacturer and the seller, or between the seller and the distributor. The issue of vertical agreements is determined by the Tribunal on the basis of the above-mentioned motivational principle. This rule analyzes the positive and negative effects of competition.
Companies involved in anti-competitive behaviour may consider their agreements to be unenforceable and may face fines of up to 10% of the group`s global turnover and possible actions for damages. The Commission found that the disputed agreements violating Section 3 of the Act and found that the network of such agreements allowed OEMs to become monopolistic players in aftermarkets for their automotive model, to create barriers to entry and to close competition with independent suppliers. In the case of Shri Shamsher Kataria v Honda Siel Cars India Ltd . Ors3, the Commission advised the concept of vertical agreements, including exclusive supply agreements, exclusive distribution agreements and refusal to conclude. Article 19, paragraph 1 of the Act provides that, in the event of payment of the fees and the prescribed terms, the ICC may request any alleged violation of Section 3 (1) of the Act itself or in the case of receiving information from individuals, consumers or their association or professional association. The ICC may also act when the central government or a state government or legal authority refers to it. The ICC only continues the investigation in cases of prima facie and then orders the Director General to open an investigation into the matter.